In this post , you have seen most important topic in computer network that is IP parameters. IP parameters , network parameters and network parameters description is highlight and give the deep information.
The network parameters and their description listed in the following table.
|Version||4-bits is reserved to indicate IPV4 or 6|
|IHL (internet header length)||This field specifies size of the header, 4 bits reserved for internet header length it is a 32-bit|
|Types of service||Defines what are the different services used to enable scalability|
|Total length||16- bits words define a datagram segment size minimum size of a packet is 20 bytes and maximum size is 65535 bytes|
|Identification||A field is used to identify a group of segmented or fragmented IP packets|
|Flags||A 3-bits is reserved to control fragments|
|TTL||Time to live (TTL)an 8-bits field is used to track the lifetime of an IP packet the packet will be discorded while the TTL value is decremented to zero|
|Protocol||An 8-bit field species the next encapsulation method ex. IPV4, ICMP|
|checksum||A 16-bit field is used to detect header errors When a packet arrives at the routers interface, it calculates checksum. If the value does not match, the packet is discarded|
|Source address||This is a 32-bits IPV4 address of the sender|
|Options||Applies to variable length, it is not use frequently|
|Padding||This is also the variable length, used to verify the integrity of 32-bit address|
|data||The value of the data field is interpreted based on the protocol header (port and protocol used) this data field is not included in checksum|
The internet control message protocol is define by IETF RFC792. ICMP messages generally contain information about routing difficulties with IP datagrams or simple exchanges such as time stamp or echo transactions
ICMP uses the packet Internet grope(ping) utility to test network layer connectivity by sending the ICMP echo to the destination. The reachability is measure either by its ICMP echo replay or by its response code.
Host A sends an ARP request to the switch to identify the MAC address of Host B. once the Address is learn, Host A sends an ICMP echo to verify the reachability to Host B
Host B receives the ICMP echo and sends an echo replay which shows the reachability between Host A & Host B.
Address resolution protocol resolves IP Address to a known MAC Address and a MAC Address to a known IP Address (Reverse ARP) both are commonly refers to as ARP Requests to resolve an address, the ARP sends a broadcast message to the entire node. On getting a reply message from a particular host, ARP creates a table and maintains the address.
|Every system in a network maintains an ARP table which consists of mapped or obtained MAC addresses and IP addresses|
Computer A sends an ARP request to computer B to get the MAC Address
Computer B replies with its MAC address both computer A & B save the MAC address to their corresponding IP Addresses IP respective ARP tables.
For subsequent communications from either computer A or computer B the ARP table is refers to perform a unicast.