IP parameters

In this post , you have seen most important topic in computer network that is IP parameters. IP parameters , network parameters and network parameters description is highlight and give the deep information.

The network parameters and their description listed in the following table.

Networkdescription
Version4-bits is reserved to indicate IPV4 or 6
 IHL (internet header length)This field specifies size of the header, 4 bits reserved for internet header length it is a 32-bit
Types of serviceDefines what are the different services used to enable scalability
Total length16- bits words define a datagram segment size minimum size of a packet is 20 bytes and maximum size is 65535 bytes  
IdentificationA field is used to identify a group of segmented or fragmented IP packets
FlagsA 3-bits is reserved to control fragments
TTLTime to live (TTL)an 8-bits field is used to track the lifetime of an IP packet the packet will be discorded while the TTL value is decremented to zero
Protocol  An 8-bit field species the next encapsulation method ex. IPV4, ICMP
checksumA 16-bit field is used to detect header errors When a packet arrives at the routers interface, it calculates checksum. If the value does not match, the packet is discarded
Source addressThis is a 32-bits IPV4 address of the sender
OptionsApplies to variable length, it is not use frequently
PaddingThis is also the variable length, used to verify the integrity of 32-bit address  
dataThe value of the data field is interpreted based on the protocol header (port and protocol used) this data field is not included in checksum

ICMP:

The internet control message protocol is define by IETF RFC792. ICMP messages generally contain information about routing difficulties with IP datagrams or simple exchanges such as time stamp or echo transactions

ICMP uses the packet Internet grope(ping) utility to test network layer connectivity by sending the ICMP echo to the destination. The reachability is measure either by its ICMP echo replay or by its response code.

Host A sends an ARP request to the switch to identify the MAC address of Host B. once the Address is learn, Host A sends an ICMP echo to verify the reachability to Host B

Host B receives the ICMP echo and sends an echo replay which shows the reachability between Host A & Host B.

IP parameters

ARP:

Address resolution protocol resolves IP Address to a known MAC Address and a MAC Address to a known IP Address (Reverse ARP) both are commonly refers to as ARP Requests to resolve an address, the ARP sends a broadcast message to the entire node. On getting a reply message from a particular host, ARP creates a table and maintains the address.

Every system in a network maintains an ARP table which consists of mapped or obtained MAC addresses and IP addresses

Computer A sends an ARP request to computer B to get the MAC Address

Computer B replies with its MAC address both computer A & B save the MAC address to their corresponding IP Addresses IP respective ARP tables.

For subsequent communications from either computer A or computer B the ARP table is refers to perform a unicast.

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